Research Library

Miguel, Edward, and Michael Kremer. 2004. “Worms: Identifying Impacts on Health and Education in the Presence of Treatment Externalities”.Abstract

Intestinal helminths – including hookworm, roundworm, whipworm, and schistosomiasis – infect more than one–quarter of the world's population. Studies in which medical treatment is randomized at the individual level potentially doubly underestimate the benefits of treatment, missing externality benefits to the comparison group from reduced disease transmission, and therefore also underestimating benefits for the treatment group. We evaluate a Kenyan project in which school–based mass treatment with deworming drugs was randomly phased into schools, rather than to individuals, allowing estimation of overall program effects. The program reduced school absenteeism in treatment schools by one–quarter, and was cheaper than alternative ways of boosting school participation. Deworming substantially improved health and school participation among untreated children in both treatment schools and neighboring schools, and these externalities are large enough to justify fully subsidizing treatment. Yet we do not find evidence that deworming improved academic test scores.

Norris, Pippa, Christian Welzel, and Ronald Inglehart. 2003. “Gender equality and democracy.” Comparative Sociology 1 (3-4): 321-346.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Le Divorce: Who is to blame for the transatlantic rift?.” Compass: A Journal of Leadership 1 (1): 22-25.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Message or Medium? Campaign learning during the 2001 British general election.” Communication 20 (3): 233-262.
Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. 2003. “Muslims and the West: Testing the ‘Clash of Civilizations’ Thesis.” Comparative Sociology 1 (3-4): 235-265.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Preaching to the Converted? Pluralism, Participation and Party Websites.” Party Politics 9 (1): 21-45.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Social Capital and ICTs:Widening or reinforcing social networks?.” Eco-Forum 22 (11): 31-41.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Pippa Norris. 2003. “The True Clash of Civilizations?.” Foreign Policy, no. March/April: 63-70.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Tuned out voters? Media Impact on Campaigns.” Ethical Perspectives 9 (3).
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Zappers in de politiek? De invloed van de media op verkiezingscampagnes.” Ethische Perspectieven 12 (2): 86-102.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “The bridging and bonding role of online communities.” Society Online: The Internet in Context. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Digital divide.” The Information Society Reader. London: Routledge.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Do institutions matter? The consequences of electoral reform for political participation..” Rethinking the Vote. Oxford University Press.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Global governance and cosmopolitan citizens.” The Global Transformations Reader, 2nd ed., 287-298. Cambridge: Polity Press, 287-298.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Globale politische Kommunikation: Freie Medien, Gutes Regieren undWohlstandsentwicklung.” Politische Kommunikation Im Internationalen Vergleich. Germany: Westdeutscher Verlag.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Il divario digitale globale: poverta informative, Internet e sviluppo.” Quale Futuro Per Il Commercio Electtronico? Milan: Franco Angeli.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Representation and the democratic deficit.” The Democracy Sourcebook. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “Still a public service ethos? Work values, experience and job satisfaction among government workers.” For the People: Public Service in the 21st Century. Washington DC: Brookings Institute Press.
Norris, Pippa, and Ronald Inglehart. 2003. “Teoria rozwojowa rőznic między płciami: zachowania wyborcze kobiet I mężczyzn w ujęciuglobalnym.” Aktorzy zycia publicznego: Płeć jako czynnik rŏżnicyjący. Warsaw: Scholar Press.
Norris, Pippa. 2003. “The Worldwide Digital Divide: Information Poverty, the Internet and Development.” I mercati elettronici hanno reali prospettive? Milan: Franco Angeli.